arav-s3.htm

 

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 4, 2020

 

Registration Statement No. 333-                    

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

ARAVIVE, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

 

 

Delaware

2834

26-4106690

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

River Oaks Tower

3730 Kirby Drive, Suite 1200

Houston, Texas 77098

(936) 355-1910

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Gail McIntyre

President and Chief Executive Officer

River Oaks Tower

3730 Kirby Drive, Suite 1200

Houston, Texas 77098

(936) 355-1910

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

Leslie Marlow, Esq.

Hank Gracin, Esq.

Patrick J. Egan, Esq.

Gracin & Marlow, LLP

The Chrysler Building

405 Lexington Avenue, 26th Floor

New York, New York 10174

Telephone: (212) 907-6457

Facsimile: (212) 208-4657

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement, as determined by market conditions.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

 


 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

Amount

to be

Registered

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Unit

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price

Amount of

Registration Fee (1)

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

(2)

(3)

(3)

Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

(2)

(3)

(3)

Debt Securities

(2)

(3)

(3)

Warrants

(2)

(3)

(3)

Total

(2)

 

$1.00

$0(4)

 

 

 

(1)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

 

(2)

There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities, and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities as may be sold by Aravive, Inc., or the Registrant, from time to time, which together shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $150,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate offering price not to exceed $150,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum offering price of the securities will be determined, from time to time, by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder. The securities registered hereunder also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the antidilution provisions of any of such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

 

(3)

The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

(4)

Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement includes a total of $150,000,000 aggregate offering price of unsold securities that were previously registered on the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-219765) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on August 7, 2017 and declared effective by the SEC on September 11, 2017, which the Registrant refers to as the Prior Registration Statement, but which remain unsold as of the date of filing of this Registration Statement. In the Prior Registration Statement, the Registrant previously registered securities in the aggregate amount of $500,000,000 and paid a registration fee of $41,724. Of the $500,000,000 of securities registered pursuant to the Prior Registration Statement, only $27,250,005 of securities were sold and $472,749,995 were unsold. Pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Securities Act, the SEC fee to register $150,000,000 of securities is $19,470 (based on a fee rate of $129.80 per million of the proposed maximum aggregate offering price). Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) of the Securities Act, the Registrant is including in this Registration Statement $150,000,000 of unsold securities registered under the Prior Registration Statement and the fees associated therewith. As a result, no additional registration fee is due with respect to this Registration Statement. The previously paid filing fee relating to such unsold securities under the Prior Registration Statement will continue to be applied to such unsold securities registered in this Registration Statement. To the extent that, after the filing date hereof and prior to the effectiveness of this Registration Statement, any such unsold securities are sold pursuant to the Prior Registration Statement, the Registrant will identify in a pre-effective amendment to this Registration Statement the updated amount of unsold securities from the Prior Registration Statement to be included in this Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) and the updated amount of new securities to be registered on this Registration Statement. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the offering of the unsold securities registered under the Prior Registration Statement, if not previously terminated, will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this Registration Statement.

 


 

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 


 


 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains:

 

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sales by us of up to $150,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

an equity distribution agreement prospectus covering the offer, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of up to $60,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under an equity distribution agreement, or equity distribution agreement, by and among us and Piper Sandler & Co., or Piper Sandler, and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, the sales agents.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The equity distribution agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $60,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the equity distribution agreement prospectus is included in the $150,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the equity distribution agreement, any portion of the $60,000,000 included in the equity distribution agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the equity distribution agreement, the full $60,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus.


 


 

 

The information contained in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, Dated September 4, 2020

PROSPECTUS

$150,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

We may, from time to time, offer and sell up to $150,000,000 of any combination of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities or warrants described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination with other securities, at prices and on terms described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also offer common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to an offering of our securities. We will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.

Securities may be sold by us to or through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers or through agents designated from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters and any applicable discounts or commissions and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ARAV.” On September 1, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $5.29 per share.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2020.

 


 


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

Page

 

About this Prospectus

ii

Prospectus Summary

1

Risk Factors

4

Forward-Looking Statements

5

Use of Proceeds

6

Description of Capital Stock

7

Description of Debt Securities

11

Description of Warrants

17

Legal Ownership of Securities

19

Plan of Distribution

22

Legal Matters

24

Experts

24

Where You Can Find More Information

24

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

24

 

 


 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $150,000,000 of common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities as described in this prospectus. Each time we sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. We may also add, update or change in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. You should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor does this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “Aravive,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Aravive, Inc. (formerly known as Versartis, Inc.), an entity incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware, and where appropriate our consolidated subsidiaries.

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

 

ii


 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference herein and does not contain all the information that may be important to purchasers of our securities. Prospective purchasers of our securities should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Prospective purchasers of our securities should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Company Overview

We are a clinical-stage oncology company developing transformative treatments designed to halt the progression of life-threatening diseases.

Our lead product candidate, AVB-500, is an ultrahigh-affinity, decoy protein that targets the GAS6-AXL signaling pathway. By capturing serum GAS6, AVB-500 starves the AXL pathway of its signal, potentially halting the biological programming that promotes disease progression. AXL receptor signaling plays an important role in multiple types of malignancies by promoting metastasis, cancer cell survival, resistance to treatments, and immune suppression.

Our current development program benefits from the availability of a proprietary serum-based biomarker that we expect will help accelerate drug development and reduce risk by allowing us to select a pharmacologically active dose.

In our completed Phase 1 clinical trial with our clinical lead product candidate, AVB-500, we have demonstrated proof of mechanism for AVB-500 in neutralizing GAS6. Importantly, AVB-500 had a favorable safety profile preclinically and in the first in human trial and Phase 1b portion of the Phase1b/2 clinical trial. In December 2018, we initiated the Phase 1b portion of a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial of AVB-500 combined with standard of care therapies in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, which we successfully completed in July 2020. In August 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) designated as a Fast Track development program the investigation of our lead development candidate, AVB-500, for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. In January 2020, we announced that the FDA has cleared our Investigational New Drug (“IND”) application for investigation of AVB-500, in the treatment of our second oncology indication, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (“ccRCC”).

With the global spread of the ongoing novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic, we have implemented business continuity plans designed to address and mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our employees and our business. While we are experiencing limited financial impacts at this time, given the global economic slowdown, the overall disruption of global healthcare systems and the other risks and uncertainties associated with the pandemic, our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be materially adversely affected. As we advance our clinical programs, we are in close contact with our clinical research organizations and clinical sites and are assessing the impact of COVID-19 on our studies and current timelines and costs. With the recent and rapidly evolving impact of COVID-19 on patient recruitment in clinical trials and considering patient safety and trial integrity, we have decided to amend our ccRCC trial to initiate treatment at a higher dose given the safety profile seen with the 15 mg/kg dosing cohort of the platinum resistant ovarian cancer (“PROC”) trial and the initiation of the 20 mg/kg dosing cohort. While this may delay first patient dosing, the overall timelines may not be significantly impacted given the higher starting dose, assuming the COVID-19 situation does not interfere with ongoing clinical studies.  We have terminated our IgA nephropathy (“IgAN”) trial, which initiated in December 2019, in order to focus on oncology. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues and persists for an extended period of time, we could experience significant disruptions to our clinical development timeline, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

General Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in December 2008 under the name Versartis, Inc. and completed our initial public offering in March 2014. Aravive Biologics was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in April 2007, originally under the name of Hypoximed, Inc, which name was changed to Ruga Corporation in July 2009 and changed to Aravive Biologics, Inc. in October 2016. As stated above, the Merger between Aravive Biologics, Inc. and Versartis, Inc. became effective on October 12, 2018. On October 15, 2018, we changed our name from Versartis, Inc. to Aravive, Inc.

Our principal executive offices are located at River Oaks Tower, 3730 Kirby Drive, Suite 1200, Houston, Texas 77098. Our telephone number is (936) 355-1910, and our website address is www.aravive.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and should not be construed as being incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement.

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Risks Associated with our Business

Our business is subject to numerous risks, as described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer shares of our common stock, preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities, with a total value of up to $150,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

designation or classification;

 

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

maturity;

 

original issue discount;

 

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends;

 

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms;

 

ranking;

 

restrictive covenants;

 

voting or other rights;

 

conversion or exchange prices or rates and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and

 

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations, if any.

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents, underwriters or dealers reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents, underwriters or dealers, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

the names of those agents, underwriters or dealers;

 

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

the net proceeds to us.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Common Stock

We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, or certificate of incorporation, and amended and restated bylaws, or bylaws, our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights. Because of this, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of legally available funds. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment

2


 

of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then-outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate in the future.

Preferred Stock

We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of such series of preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

Warrants

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of warrants being offered, as well as any warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and discussed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as may be updated by subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below entitled “Forward-Looking Statements.”


4


 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference herein, contains, and any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus including the documents we incorporate by reference therein may contain, forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, including statements regarding our future financial condition, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “believe,” “will,” “may,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “should,” “plan,” “might,” “approximately,” “expect,” “predict,” “could,” “potentially” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places throughout this prospectus and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs, projections, outlook, analyses or current expectations concerning, among other things, our ongoing and planned preclinical development and clinical trials, the timing of and our ability to make regulatory filings and obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates, our intellectual property position, the degree of clinical utility of our product candidates, our ability to develop commercial functions, expectations regarding clinical trial data, our results of operations, cash needs, spending of the proceeds from any offering, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth and strategies, the industry in which we operate and the trends that may affect the industry or us.

Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found, among other places, in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein, including our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto.

These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievement to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail, and incorporate by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, many of these risks and uncertainties under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any free writing prospectus we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, and in the documents incorporated by reference herein. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement.


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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Except as described in any prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder primarily for research, development and manufacturing of product candidates, and for other general corporate purposes including, to acquire, license or invest in complementary businesses, technologies, product candidates or other intellectual property. Pending these uses, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing securities. We have broad discretion in determining how the proceeds of any offering will be used, and our discretion is not limited by the aforementioned possible uses. Our board of directors believes the flexibility in application of the net proceeds is prudent.

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of the date of this prospectus, our certificate of incorporation, authorizes us to issue up to 100,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share. As of September 1, 2020, 16,077,766 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

The following summary describes the material terms of our capital stock. The description of capital stock is qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws.

Common Stock

Voting Rights. Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, except as otherwise required by statute. Except as otherwise provided by statute or by applicable stock exchange rules, in all matters other than the election of directors, stockholders may take action with the affirmative vote of the majority of shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at a stockholder meeting and entitled to vote generally on the subject matter. Cumulative voting for the election of directors is not provided for in our certificate of incorporation. Except as otherwise provided by statute, stockholders may elect directors by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable.

Dividends. Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of outstanding shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.

Liquidation Rights. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating convertible preferred stock outstanding at that time after payment of liquidation preferences, on any outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock and payment of other claims of creditors.

Rights and Preferences. The rights, preferences, and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Preemptive or Similar Rights. Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights and is not subject to conversion or redemption.

Fully Paid and Nonassessable. All of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of up to an aggregate of 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and authorize their issuance. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of our common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control or other corporate action.

The following summary of terms of our preferred stock is not complete. You should refer to the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the resolutions containing the terms of each class or series of the preferred stock which have been or will be filed with the SEC at or prior to the time of issuance of such class or series of preferred stock and described in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement may also state that any of the terms set forth herein are inapplicable to such series of preferred stock, provided that the information set forth in such prospectus supplement does not constitute material changes to the information herein such that it alters the nature of the offering or the securities offered.

We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of preferred stock being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

the title and stated value;

 

the number of shares we are offering;

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the liquidation preference per share;

 

the purchase price;

 

the dividend rate, period and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;

 

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

the procedures for any auction and remarketing;

 

the provisions for a sinking fund;

 

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

preemptive rights;

 

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment;

 

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

If we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable.

The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and reduce the likelihood that common stockholders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. The issuance could have the effect of decreasing the market price of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock also could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Options

As of September 1, 2020, (i) options to purchase an aggregate of 2,071,782 shares of common stock were outstanding, (ii) restricted stock units underlying 2,844 shares of common stock were outstanding under our equity incentive plans, and (iii) an additional 1,713,710 shares were reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Charter Documents and Some Provisions of Delaware Law

Delaware Law

We are incorporated in the State of Delaware. As a result, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (1) by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) employee stock plans

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in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:

 

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation. A Delaware corporation may “opt out” of these provisions with an express provision in its certificate of incorporation. We have not opted out of these provisions, which may as a result, discourage or prevent mergers or other takeover or change of control attempts of us.

Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Our certificate of incorporation provides for our board of directors to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors is elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding are able to elect all of our directors. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws also provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders only for cause upon the vote of 66 2/3% of our outstanding common stock. Furthermore, the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors, and vacancies and newly created directorships on the board of directors may, except as otherwise required by law or determined by the board, only be filled by a majority vote of the directors then serving on the board, even though less than a quorum.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws also provide that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting. Our bylaws also provide that only our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors may call a special meeting of stockholders.

Our bylaws also provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide timely advance notice in writing, and specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that the stockholders cannot amend many of the provisions described above except by a vote of 66 2/3% or more of our outstanding common stock.

The combination of these provisions makes it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our

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potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Choice of Forum

Our certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for:

 

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

 

any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; or

 

any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

A Delaware corporation is allowed to mandate in its corporate governance documents a chosen forum for the resolution of state law based shareholder class actions, derivative suits and other intra-corporate disputes.

Our management believes limiting state law based claims to Delaware will provide the most appropriate outcomes as the risk of another forum misapplying Delaware law is avoided, Delaware courts have a well-developed body of case law and limiting the forum will preclude costly and duplicative litigation and avoids the risk of inconsistent outcomes. Additionally, Delaware Chancery Courts can typically resolve disputes on an accelerated schedule when compared to other forums.

While management believes limiting the forum for state law based claims is a benefit, shareholders could be inconvenienced by not being able to bring a state law based action in another forum they find favorable.

This exclusive forum provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the extent that any such claims may be based upon federal law claims, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Although our certificate contains the choice of forum provision described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable. Several lawsuits involving other companies have been brought challenging the validity of choice of forum provisions in certificates of incorporation, and it is possible that a court could note such provision is inapplicable or unenforceable.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ARAV.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on any securities market or other exchange of the specific security covered by such prospectus supplement.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture will not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

the maturity date or dates;

 

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

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if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

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Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

 

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

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the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series; •reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

provide for payment;

 

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

maintain paying agencies;

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hold monies for payment in trust;

 

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating such securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by

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check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and free writing prospectus, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

We have filed or will file forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.

General

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

a discussion of material United States federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

 

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

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Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any; or

 

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant or warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent, if applicable, in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of any warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to any warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.


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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.


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Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations for Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

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we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.


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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

at negotiated prices.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price on or through the facilities of the Nasdaq Global Select or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale.

Such at the market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;

 

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

any public offering price;

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

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All securities we offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Global Select may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the Nasdaq Global Select in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.


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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon for us by Gracin & Marlow, LLP, New York, New York. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, an attorney of Gracin & Marlow, LLP beneficially owns securities exercisable to purchase shares of our common stock that represent less than 1% of our outstanding shares of common stock.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2019 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus and the registration statement have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Additional information about Aravive, Inc. is contained at our website, www.aravive.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. We make available on our website our SEC filings as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are filed with the SEC.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-36361. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this prospectus:

 

 

 

 

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 27, 2020;

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 6, 2020;

 

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 3, 2020;

 

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 9, 2020January 13, 2020February 18, 2020March 27, 2020, April 9, 2020, and July 23, 2020 (other than as indicated therein); and

 

The description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on March 19, 2014, including any amendments thereto or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the

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offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Aravive, Inc.

River Oaks Tower

3730 Kirby Drive, Suite 1200

Houston, Texas 77098

(936) 355-1910

Attn: Chief Financial Officer

Any statement contained in this prospectus or contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any subsequently filed supplement to this prospectus, or document deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, modifies or supersedes such statement.

 

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The information contained in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, Dated September 4, 2020

PROSPECTUS

 

Up to $60,000,000

Common Stock

 

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with Piper Sandler & Co., or Piper Sandler, and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, or the sales agents, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of this equity distribution agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $60,000,000 from time to time through the sales agents.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ARAV.” On September 1, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $5.29 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. The sales agents will act as sales agents on a best efforts basis and will use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with their respective normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between the sales agents and us, as applicable. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

As sales agents, Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold through them as agents under the equity distribution agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-9 for a description of compensation payable to the sales agents in connection with the sale of common stock on our behalf. The sales agents will be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the sales agents will be deemed to be underwriting commissions. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the sales agents with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, please read the information under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

 

Piper Sandler

Cantor

The date of this prospectus is                    , 2020

 


 


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

Page

About this Prospectus

S-i

Special Note Regard Forward-Looking Statements

S-ii

Prospectus Summary

S-1

The Offering

S-2

Risk Factors

S-3

Use of Proceeds

S-6

Dividend Policy

S-7

Dilution

S-8

Plan of Distribution

S-9

Legal Matters

S-11

Experts

S-11

Where You Can Find More Information

S-11

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

S-11

 

 


 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus relates to part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in our base prospectus included in the shelf registration statement in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $150,000,000. The $60,000,000 of shares of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under this prospectus is included in the $150,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us pursuant to our shelf registration statement. In connection with such offers and when accompanied by the base prospectus included in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, this prospectus will be deemed a prospectus supplement to such base prospectus.

This prospectus relates to the offering of our shares of common stock. Before buying any of our shares of common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of our shares of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date (for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus) the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the sales agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the sales agents are not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should carefully read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

This prospectus contains and incorporates by reference market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe that these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

Unless otherwise indicated, all references to “Aravive,” “we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company” in this prospectus refer to Aravive, Inc. (the combined company formerly known as Versartis, Inc.) and references to “Versartis, Inc.” or “Private Aravive” refer to those respective companies prior to the completion of the Merger.


S-i


 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this prospectus that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act”, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in this section of the prospectus titled “Risk Factors.” Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.

Please consider our forward-looking statements in light of those risks as you read this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than as of the date of this prospectus and that any information incorporated by reference into this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document so incorporated by reference. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements.

If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materializes, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may vary materially from what we anticipate. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or individuals acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this Note. Before purchasing any shares of common stock, you should consider carefully all of the factors set forth or referred to in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference that could cause actual results to differ.

 

S-ii


 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The items in the following summary are described in more detail elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein. This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not intended to be complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding to invest in our securities. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S-3 and other documents or information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus before making an investment decision.

Company Overview

We are a clinical-stage oncology company developing transformative treatments designed to halt the progression of life-threatening diseases.

Our lead product candidate, AVB-500, is an ultrahigh-affinity, decoy protein that targets the GAS6-AXL signaling pathway. By capturing serum GAS6, AVB-500 starves the AXL pathway of its signal, potentially halting the biological programming that promotes disease progression. AXL receptor signaling plays an important role in multiple types of malignancies by promoting metastasis, cancer cell survival, resistance to treatments, and immune suppression.

Our current development program benefits from the availability of a proprietary serum-based biomarker that we expect will help accelerate drug development and reduce risk by allowing us to select a pharmacologically active dose.

In our completed Phase 1 clinical trial with our clinical lead product candidate, AVB-500, we have demonstrated proof of mechanism for AVB-500 in neutralizing GAS6. Importantly, AVB-500 had a favorable safety profile preclinically and in the first in human trial and Phase 1b portion of the Phase1b/2 clinical trial. In December 2018, we initiated the Phase 1b portion of a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial of AVB-500 combined with standard of care therapies in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, which we successfully completed in July 2020. In August 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) designated as a Fast Track development program the investigation of our lead development candidate, AVB-500, for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. In January 2020, we announced that the FDA has cleared our Investigational New Drug (“IND”) application for investigation of AVB-500, in the treatment of our second oncology indication, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (“ccRCC”).

With the global spread of the ongoing novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic, we have implemented business continuity plans designed to address and mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our employees and our business. While we are experiencing limited financial impacts at this time, given the global economic slowdown, the overall disruption of global healthcare systems and the other risks and uncertainties associated with the pandemic, our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be materially adversely affected. As we advance our clinical programs, we are in close contact with our clinical research organizations and clinical sites and are assessing the impact of COVID-19 on our studies and current timelines and costs. With the recent and rapidly evolving impact of COVID-19 on patient recruitment in clinical trials and considering patient safety and trial integrity, we have decided to amend our ccRCC trial to initiate treatment at a higher dose given the safety profile seen with the 15 mg/kg dosing cohort of the platinum resistant ovarian cancer (“PROC”) trial and the initiation of the 20 mg/kg dosing cohort. While this may delay first patient dosing, the overall timelines may not be significantly impacted given the higher starting dose, assuming the COVID-19 situation does not interfere with ongoing clinical studies.  We have terminated our IgA nephropathy (“IgAN”) trial, which initiated in December 2019, in order to focus on oncology. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues and persists for an extended period of time, we could experience significant disruptions to our clinical development timeline, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

General Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in December 2008 under the name Versartis, Inc. and completed our initial public offering in March 2014. Aravive Biologics was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in April 2007, originally under the name of Hypoximed, Inc, which name was changed to Ruga Corporation in July 2009 and changed to Aravive Biologics, Inc. in October 2016. As stated above, the Merger between Aravive Biologics, Inc. and Versartis, Inc. became effective on October 12, 2018. On October 15, 2018, we changed our name from Versartis, Inc. to Aravive, Inc.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at River Oaks Tower, 3730 Kirby Drive, Suite 1200, Houston, Texas 77098. Our telephone number is (936) 355-1910, and our website address is www.aravive.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and should not be construed as being incorporated by reference into, this prospectus.


S-1


 

 

THE OFFERING

 

Issuer

Aravive, Inc.

 

 

Common stock to be offered by us pursuant

to this prospectus

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $60,000,000.

 

 

Common stock to be outstanding after

the offering

Up to 27,338,332 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of all $60,000,000 of shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $5.29 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on September 1, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

 

 

Plan of Distribution

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agents, Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-9.

 

 

Use of Proceeds

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, primarily for research, development and manufacturing of product candidates, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes including, to acquire, license or invest in complementary businesses, technologies, product candidates or other intellectual property. Pending these uses, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing securities. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

 

Risk Factors

You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.

 

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market

Trading symbol

ARAV

The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding immediately after this offering as shown above is based on 15,996,177 shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020. The number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020 as used throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, excludes:

 

2,080,075 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted average exercise price of $9.87 per share;

 

2,844 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of certain outstanding restricted stock units; and

 

2,054,755 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans.

 

S-2


 

 

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk, and you should be able to bear the complete loss of your investment. You should consider carefully the risks described below and those described under the section captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K, any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus before deciding whether to purchase any of the common stock being offered under this prospectus. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, consolidated financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements made throughout this prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus as a result of different factors, including the risks we face described below.

Risks Related to this Offering

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering and may not use the proceeds effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, primarily for research, development and manufacturing of product candidates, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes including, to acquire, license or invest in complementary businesses, technologies, product candidates or other intellectual property. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds, if any, may be used for corporate purposes that do not improve our operating results or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure of our management to use these funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the market price of our common stock to decline and impair the commercialization of our products and/or delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.

If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to investors.

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering, which may result in new investors in this offering will incur immediate dilution. To the extent outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors.

Our need for future financing may result in the issuance of additional securities which will cause investors to experience dilution.

Our cash requirements may vary from those now planned depending upon numerous factors, including the results of future research and development activities. We expect our expenses to increase if and when we initiate and conduct additional clinical trials, and seek marketing approval for our product candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. There are no other commitments by any person for future financing. Our securities may be offered to other investors at a price lower than the price per share offered to current stockholders, or upon terms which may be deemed more favorable than those offered to current stockholders. In addition, the issuance of securities in any future financing may dilute an investor’s equity ownership and have the effect of depressing the market price for our securities. Moreover, we may issue derivative securities, including options and/or warrants, from time to time, to procure qualified personnel or for other business reasons. The issuance of any such derivative securities, which is at the discretion of our board of directors, may further dilute the equity ownership of our stockholders.

We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering. No assurance can be given as to our ability to procure additional financing, if required, and on terms deemed favorable to us. To the extent additional capital is required and cannot be raised successfully, we may then have to limit our then current operations and/or may have to curtail certain, if not all, of our business objectives and plans.

 

S-3


 

 

Our stock price has fluctuated in the past, has recently been volatile and may be volatile in the future, and as a result, investors in our common stock could incur substantial losses.

Our stock price has fluctuated in the past, has recently been volatile and may be volatile in the future. From January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2019 the reported sale price of our common stock has fluctuated between $3.07 and $144.00 per share. Following the announcement of the failure of our Phase 3 clinical trial to meet its primary endpoint in September 2017, our stock price declined substantially. In addition, the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 coronavirus has caused broad stock market and industry fluctuations, including a significant decline in our stock price. The stock market in general and the market for biotechnology companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may experience losses on their investment in our common stock. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including the following:

 

investor reaction to our business strategy;

 

the success of competitive products or technologies;

 

results of clinical studies of AVB-500 or future product candidates or those of our competitors;

 

regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries, especially changes in laws or regulations applicable to our products;

 

introductions and announcements of new products by us, results of clinical trials, our commercialization partners, or our competitors, and the timing of these introductions or announcements;

 

actions taken by regulatory agencies with respect to our products, clinical studies, manufacturing process or sales and marketing terms;

 

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

 

the success of our efforts to acquire or in-license additional products or product candidates;

 

developments concerning our collaborations, including but not limited to those with our sources of manufacturing supply and our commercialization partners;

 

developments concerning our ability to bring our manufacturing processes to scale in a cost-effective manner;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

developments or disputes concerning patents or other proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our products;

 

our ability or inability to raise additional capital and the terms on which we raise it;

 

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

 

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

 

market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

 

declines in the market prices of stocks generally;

 

actual or anticipated changes in earnings estimates or changes in stock market analyst recommendations regarding our common stock, other comparable companies or our industry generally;

 

trading volume of our common stock;

 

sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders;

 

general economic, industry and market conditions;

 

other events or factors, including those resulting from such events, or the prospect of such events, including war, terrorism and other international conflicts, public health issues including health epidemics or pandemics, such as the recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus COVID-19, and natural disasters such as fire, hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados or other adverse weather and climate conditions, whether occurring in the United States or elsewhere, could disrupt our operations, disrupt the operations of our suppliers or result in political or economic instability; and

 

the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section and the “Risk Factors” sections included in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

S-4

 


 

These broad market and industry factors may seriously harm the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. Since the stock price of our common stock has fluctuated in the past, has been recently volatile and may be volatile in the future, investors in our common stock could incur substantial losses. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

We have additional securities available for issuance, which, if issued, could adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, authorizes the issuance of 100,000,000 shares of our common stock and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock. In certain circumstances, the common stock, as well as the awards available for issuance under our equity incentive plans, can be issued by our board of directors, without stockholder approval. Any future issuances of such stock would further dilute the percentage ownership of us held by holders of preferred stock and common stock. In addition, the issuance of certain securities, including pursuant to the terms of our stockholder rights plan, may be used as an “anti-takeover” device without further action on the part of our stockholders, and may adversely affect the holders of the common stock.

Resales of our common stock in the public market during this offering by our stockholders may cause the market price of our common stock to fall.

We may issue common stock from time to time in connection with this offering. This issuance from time to time of these new shares of our common stock, or our ability to issue these shares of common stock in this offering, could result in resales of our common stock by our current stockholders concerned about the potential dilution of their holdings. In turn, these resales could have the effect of depressing the market price for our common stock.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the equity distribution agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the equity distribution agreement with the sales agents and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver placement notices to the sales agents at any time throughout the term of the equity distribution agreement. The number of shares that are sold by the sales agents after our delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock during the sales period and limits we set with sales agents.

The shares of common stock offered under this prospectus may be sold in “at the market” offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares under this prospectus at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience declines in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.


S-5


 

USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate gross proceeds of up to $60,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the equity distribution agreement with the sales agents as a source of financing.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for research, development and manufacturing of product candidates, and for other general corporate purposes including, to acquire, license or invest in complementary businesses, technologies, product candidates or other intellectual property. Pending these uses, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing securities. We have broad discretion in determining how the proceeds of this offering will be used, and our discretion is not limited by the aforementioned possible uses. Our board of directors believes the flexibility in application of the net proceeds is prudent.

As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received from this offering. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors including the progress in, and costs of, our clinical trials and other preclinical development programs and the amount of funding, if any, received from grants. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and investors will be relying on the judgment of management regarding the application of the net proceeds from the offering. We may find it necessary or advisable to reallocate the net proceeds of this offering; however, any such reallocation would be substantially limited to the categories set forth above as we do not intend to use the net proceeds for other purposes. Pending such uses set forth above, we plan to invest the net proceeds in government securities and other short-term investment grade, marketable securities.


S-6


 

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and we do not currently intend to pay any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We expect to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends, if any, on our common stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements and contractual restrictions.


S-7


 

DILUTION

Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $59.3 million, or $3.71 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020. Dilution with respect to net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

After giving effect to the sale of 11,342,155 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $5.29 per share and after deducting estimated offering commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 would have been approximately $117.2 million, or $4.29 per share. This represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value of $0.58 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $1.00 per share to new investors purchasing securities in this offering. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assumed public offering price per share

  

 

 

 

  

$5.29

 

 

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020

  

 

$3.71

 

  

 

 

 

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

  

 

$0.58

 

  

 

 

 

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020, after giving effect to this offering

  

 

 

 

  

$4.29

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors purchasing our common stock in this offering

  

 

 

 

  

$1.00

 

 

The table and discussion above are based on 15,996,177 shares of common stock issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2020 and excludes as of that date:

 

 

 

2,080,075 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted average exercise price of $9.87 per share;

 

 

 

2,054,755 additional shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans; and

 

 

 

2,844 shares of our common stock issued subsequent to June 30, 2020 in connection with the vesting of certain restricted stock units.

 

To the extent that any outstanding options are exercised, new options or shares of restricted stock are issued under our equity incentive plans, or we otherwise issue additional shares of common stock in the future, at a price less than the public offering price, there will be further dilution to the investors. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

 


S-8


 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald, each a sales agent. The sales agents will use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with their respective normal trading and sales practices, under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the equity distribution agreement. We may instruct the sales agents not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any instruction. We or the sales agents may suspend the offering of common stock upon proper notice and subject to other conditions, as further described in the equity distribution agreement. This summary of the material provisions of the equity distribution agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the equity distribution agreement has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

When instructed by us, the sales agents will offer the shares of common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement which may be on a daily basis for periods of time, or otherwise, or as we may otherwise agree with the sales agents. We will designate the maximum amount of shares of common stock to be sold through the sales agents when we request the sales agents to do so. The sales agents have agreed, subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement, to use commercially reasonable efforts to place on our behalf all of the designated shares of common stock.

The sales agents will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market each day in which our common stock is sold under the equity distribution agreement. Each such confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold on such day, the net proceeds to us and the compensation payable by us to the sales agents in connection with the sales of common stock.

We will pay the sales agents commissions for their services in acting as agent and/or principal in the sale of our common stock. The sales agents will be entitled to compensation in an amount up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of all common stock sold through the sales agents as agent under the equity distribution agreement. However, in the event a sales agent acts as principal in the sale of common stock under the equity distribution agreement, such rate of compensation will not apply, but in no event will the total compensation of a sales agent, when combined with the reimbursement of such sales agent for the out-of-pocket fees and disbursements of its legal counsel as described below, exceed 8.0% of the gross proceeds received from the sale of the common stock. We have agreed to reimburse a portion of Piper Sandler’s and Cantor Fitzgerald’s expenses, including legal fees, in connection with this offering up to a maximum of $100,000. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5110 these reimbursed fees and expenses are deemed sales compensation to Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to the sales agents under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, including reimbursement of the sales agents’ out-of-pocket expenses for its legal counsel, will be approximately $250,000.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the sales agents in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement. Sales of common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald may agree upon.

We will report at least quarterly the number of common stock sold through the sales agents, as sales agents, under the equity distribution agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to the sales agents in connection with the sales of common stock.

The sales agents and their affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking, commercial banking, fiduciary and advisory services for us from time to time for which they have received, and may in the future receive, customary fees and expenses. The sales agents and their affiliates may, from time to time, engage in other transactions with and perform services for us in the ordinary course of their business.

We previously entered into an equity distribution agreement with Piper Jaffray & Co. (the predecessor to Piper Sandler) on March 26, 2019, which agreement shall terminate upon the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald acted as joint book-running managers and underwriters in our follow-on underwritten offering that closed on December 2, 2019 in which we issued and sold 3,633,334 shares of our common stock for which we received gross proceeds of approximately $27.3 million pursuant to the terms of a Purchase Agreement with Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., as representatives of the several underwriters named therein, that we entered into on November 27, 2019.

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, the sales agents will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of the sales agents will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify the sales agents against specified liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments that the sales agents may be required to make because of those liabilities.

S-9


 

The offering of shares of our common stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all common stock subject to the equity distribution agreement or (2) termination of the equity distribution agreement according to its terms by either the sales agents or us.

This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald and Piper Sandler and Cantor Fitzgerald may distribute this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus electronically.


S-10


 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Gracin & Marlow, LLP. Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for us by Cooley LLP, New York, New York. The sales agents are being represented in connection with this offering by Goodwin Procter LLP, New York, New York.

As of the date of this prospectus, an attorney of Gracin & Marlow, LLP beneficially owns securities exercisable to purchase shares of our common stock that represent less than 1% of our outstanding shares of common stock.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2019 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Additional information about Aravive, Inc. is contained at our website, www.aravive.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We make available on our website our SEC filings as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are filed with the SEC.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-36361. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this prospectus:

 

 

 

 

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 27, 2020;

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 6, 2020;

 

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 3, 2020;

 

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 9, 2020January 13, 2020February 18, 2020March 27, 2020, April 9, 2020, and July 23, 2020 (other than as indicated therein); and

 

The description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on March 19, 2014, including any amendments thereto or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the

S-11


 

offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Aravive, Inc.

River Oaks Tower

3730 Kirby Drive, Suite 1200

Houston, Texas 77098

(936) 355-1910

Attn: Chief Financial Officer

Any statement contained in this prospectus or contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any subsequently filed supplement to this prospectus, or document deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, modifies or supersedes such statement.

 

S-12


 

 

 

 

Up to $60,000,000

Common Stock

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

Piper Sandler

Cantor

 

                , 2020

 

 

 

 


 

 

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, all of which shall be borne by the Registrant, in connection with the offering of the securities pursuant to this Registration Statement:

 

 

Amount

 

SEC registration fee

$ 0

Printing and engraving expenses

(1)

Legal fees and expenses

(1)

Accountant’s fees and expenses

(1)

Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses

(1)

Trustee fees and expenses

(1)

Miscellaneous

(1)

 

 

Total

$ (1)

 

 

 

(1)

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act.

Our certificate of incorporation provides for indemnification of our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, and our bylaws provide for indemnification of our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers whereby we have agreed to indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by law, including indemnification against expenses and liabilities incurred in legal proceedings to which the director or officer was, or is threatened to be made, a party by reason of the fact that such director or officer is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of Aravive, Inc., provided that such director or officer acted in good faith and in a manner that the director or officer reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interest of Aravive, Inc. At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or officer of Aravive, Inc. regarding which indemnification is sought, nor is the registrant aware of any threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification.

We maintain insurance policies that indemnify our directors and officers against various liabilities arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that might be incurred by any director or officer in his capacity as such.

Any underwriting agreement, agency agreement, equity distribution agreement or similar agreement that the Registrant may enter into will likely provide for indemnification by any underwriters or agents of the Registrant, its directors, its officers who sign the registration statement and the Registrant’s controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.


II-1


 

 

Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

(a)

Exhibits

 

 

 

Exhibit

Number

 

Description

 

 

 

  1.1*

 

Equity Distribution Agreement, dated as of September 4, 2020, by and among Aravive, Inc., Piper Sandler & Co. and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

 

 

  1.2**

Form of Underwriting Agreement

 

 

  3.1

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (Incorporated herein by reference to the Exhibit 3.1 of the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-36361) filed with the SEC on March 26, 2014)

 

 

  3.2

Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Versartis, Inc. (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-36361) filed with the SEC on June 1, 2017)

 

 

  3.3

Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Versartis, Inc. (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-36361) filed with the SEC on September 12, 2017)

 

 

  3.4

Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Versartis, Inc. (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-36361), as filed with the SEC on October 16, 2018)

 

 

  3.5

Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Versartis, Inc. (Incorporated herein by reference to exhibit number 3.2 of our current report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-36361), as filed with the SEC on October 16, 2018)

 

 

  3.6

Certificate of Correction to Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Aravive, Inc. (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.6 of the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 001-36361) filed with the SEC on March 15, 2019)

 

 

  3.7

Amended and Restated Bylaws (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.4 of the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-193997), filed with the SEC on March 6, 2014)

 

 

  4.1

Form of Common Stock Certificate (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 of the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (File No. 001-36361) for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2014 filed with the SEC on May 14, 2014)

 

 

  4.2**

Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock

 

 

  4.3*

Form of Indenture

 

 

  4.4**

Form of Debt Securities

 

 

  4.5**

Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate

 

 

  4.6**

Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate

 

 

  4.7**

Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate

 

 

  5.1*

Opinion of Gracin & Marlow, LLP

 

 

23.1*

Consent of BDO USA, LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

 

23.2*

Consent of Gracin & Marlow, LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)

 

 

24.1*

Power of Attorney (included on the signature page)

 

 

25.1***

Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture

 

*

Filed herewith.

**

To be filed, if applicable, by amendment or by a report filed under the Exchange Act and incorporated herein by reference.

***

To be filed, if applicable, in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.


II-2


 

 

Item 17. Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

(ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

(i)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)

any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;


II-3


 

 

 

(ii)

any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii)

the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv)

any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.


II-4


 

 

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Houston, State of Texas, on the 4th day of September, 2020.

 

ARAVIVE, INC.

 

 

By:

/s/ Gail McIntyre

 

 

Gail McIntyre

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

POWERS OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Gail McIntyre and Vinay Shah, jointly and severally, as his or her true and lawful agent, proxy and attorneys-in-fact, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to (i) act on, sign and file with the Securities and Exchange Commission any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement together with all schedules and exhibits thereto and any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, together with all schedules and exhibits thereto, (ii) act on, sign and file such certificates, instruments, agreements and other documents as may be necessary or appropriate in connection therewith, (iii) act on and file any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and (iv) take any and all actions which may be necessary or appropriate to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby approving, ratifying and confirming all that such agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact or any of his substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

 

 

 

 

/s/ Gail McIntyre

 

Chief Executive Officer and Director

September 4, 2020

Gail McIntyre

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

 

/s/ Vinay Shah

 

Chief Financial Officer

September 4, 2020

Vinay Shah

(Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)

 

 

 

 

/s/ Fredric N. Eshelman

 

Chairman of the Board of Directors

September 4, 2020

Fredric N. Eshelman, Pharm.D.

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Amato Giaccia

 

Director

September 4, 2020

Amato Giaccia, Ph.D.

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Raymond Tabibiazar

 

Director

September 4, 2020

Raymond Tabibiazar, M.D.

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Eric Zhang

 

Director

September 4, 2020

Eric Zhang

 

 

 

 

II-5

arav-ex11_198.htm

 

Exhibit 1.1

ARAVIVE, INC.

 

EQUITY DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT

 

September 4, 2020

 

PIPER SANDLER & CO.

U.S. Bancorp Center

800 Nicollet Mall

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55402

 

CANTOR FITZGERALD & CO.

499 Park Avenue

New York, New York 10022

 

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

As further set forth in this agreement (this Agreement), Aravive, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the Company), proposes to issue and sell from time to time through Piper Sandler & Co. and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (each an “Agent, and together, the Agents), as sales agents, the Company’s shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock) (such Common Stock to be sold pursuant to this Agreement, the “Shares), on terms set forth herein. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in Section 2 of this Agreement on the number of Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and the Agents shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

 

The Company hereby confirms its agreement with the Agents with respect to the sale of the Shares.

 

1.Representations and Warranties of the Company.

 

(a)The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agents that, unless otherwise specified below, as of the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date, each date on which a Placement Notice (as defined in Section 2(a)(i) below) is given, and any date on which Shares are sold hereunder as follows:

 

(i)Registration Statement and Prospectus.  The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the Securities Act), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the Commission) a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the Exchange Act). The Company has prepared a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus

 


 

 

included as part of such registration statement at the time it became effective specifically relating to the Shares (the Prospectus Supplement). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by Agent, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement at the time it became effective, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, as amended, when it becomes or became effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the Registration Statement. The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement at the time it becomes or became effective, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form existing at the time in which such prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (Rule 433), relating to the Shares, if any, that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Companys records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the Prospectus. Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms amend, amendment or supplement with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR).

 

(ii) Continuing Effectiveness of Registration Statement.  As of each Representation Date, each date on which a Placement Notice (as defined in Section 2(a)(i) below) is given, and any date on which Shares are sold hereunder:

 

(A) the Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement shall have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied, to the Commission’s satisfaction, with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information. (B) No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. (C) The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Shares hereunder meets the requirements or General Instruction I.B.1./I.B.6 of Form S-3.

 

(iii) No Material Misstatements or Omissions.  As of each Representation Date, each date on which a Placement Notice (as defined in Section 2(a)(i) below) is given, and any date on which Shares are sold hereunder:

 

2

 


 

 

the Prospectus complied, and as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, and as of each Settlement Date (as defined in Section 2(a)(vii) below), complied in all material respects with the Securities Act, and as of each effective date and each Settlement Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each of the Settlement Date, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required.

 

(iv)Eligible Issuer.  The Company is not an “ineligible issuer” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) as of the eligibility determination date for purposes of Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act with respect to the offering of the Shares contemplated by the Registration Statement; the parties hereto agree and understand that the content of any and all “road shows” (as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act) related to the offering of the Shares contemplated hereby is solely the property of the Company.

 

(v)Intentionally Omitted.

 

(vi) Financial Statements.  The historical financial statements (including the related notes and supporting schedules) to be included or incorporated by reference, in the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus comply as to form in all material respects with the requirements of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act (Regulation S-X) and present fairly in all material respects the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the entities purported to be shown thereby at the dates and for the periods indicated and have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved. All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement and Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply in all material respects with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Securities Act, to the extent applicable. There are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so included as required. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly present the information called for in all material respects and have been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

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(vii) No Off-Balance Sheet Transactions.There are no transactions, arrangements and other relationships between and/or among the Company, and/or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its affiliates and any unconsolidated entity, including, but not limited to, any structural finance, special purpose or limited purpose entity (each, an “Off-Balance Sheet Transaction) that could reasonably be expected to affect materially the Company’s liquidity or the availability of or requirements for its capital resources, including those Off Balance Sheet Transactions described in the Commission’s Statement about Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations (Release Nos. 33-8056; 34-45321; FR-61), and are required to be described in the Prospectus, which have not been described as required.

 

(viii)    Auditor Independence.  BDO USA, LLP, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries (the Subsidiaries), and whose report appears in or is incorporated by referenced in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are independent public accountants as required by the Securities Act and the Public Accounting Oversight Board.

 

(ix)    No Material Adverse Effect.  The Company and each of its Subsidiaries (a complete list of the Subsidiaries is included as Schedule 4 hereto) has been duly organized, validly existing as a corporation and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries are, and will be, duly licensed or qualified as a foreign corporation for transaction of business and in good standing under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such license or qualification, and have all corporate power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect or would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on or affecting the assets, business, operations, earnings, properties, condition (financial or otherwise), prospects, stockholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, or prevent or materially interfere with consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby (a Material Adverse Effect).  The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 except for subsidiaries that in the aggregate would not constitute a “significant subsidiary” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act). Aravive Biologics, Inc. is the only subsidiary of the Company and it is a significant subsidiary (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act).

 

(x) Capitalization.  The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and all of the issued shares of the Company have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and non-assessable, conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and were not issued in violation of any preemptive right, resale right, right of first refusal or similar right. All of the Company’s options, warrants and other rights to purchase or exchange any securities for shares of the Company’s capital stock have been duly authorized and validly issued, and conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. All of the

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issued shares of capital stock or other ownership interest of each subsidiary of the Company have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, equities or claims, except for such liens, encumbrances, equities or claims as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(xi) Due Authorization, Valid Issuance and Non-Assessibility of Shares.  The Shares to be issued and sold by the Company to or through the Agents hereunder have been duly authorized and, upon payment and delivery in accordance with this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable, will conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, will be issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws and will be free of statutory and contractual preemptive rights, rights of first refusal and similar rights.

 

(xii) Authority to Enter into this Agreement.  The Company has all requisite corporate power and authority to execute, deliver and perform its obligations under this Agreement.  This Agreement has been duly and validly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

 

(xiii) Non-Contravention. The issue and sale of the Shares, the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and the application of the proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described under “Use of Proceeds” in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, impose any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company and its subsidiaries, or constitute a default under, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, license, lease or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject; (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the articles of association, charter or by-laws (or similar organizational documents) of the Company or any of its subsidiaries; or (iii) result in any violation of any statute or any judgment, order, decree, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their properties or assets, except, with respect to clauses (i) and (iii), for such conflicts, breaches, violations, liens, charges, encumbrances or defaults that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(xiv) No Consent or Approval Required.  No consent, approval, authorization or order of, or filing, registration or qualification with, any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their properties or assets is required for the issue and sale of the Shares, the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby, the application of the proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described under “Use of Proceeds” in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except for (i) the registration of the Shares under the Securities Act; (ii) such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders, filings, registrations or qualifications as may be required under the Exchange Act, and applicable state or foreign securities laws and/or the bylaws and rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (the FINRA) in connection with the sale of the Shares by the Agents; and (iii) the inclusion of the Shares on the Nasdaq Global Market (the Exchange).

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(xv)Stock Options.  Except as described in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus or issued pursuant to any employee or director share option, incentive or benefit plan, share purchase or ownership plan, long-term incentive plan, dividend reinvestment plan, inducement award under Nasdaq rules or other compensation plan of the Company or its subsidiaries, whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR (or, in the case of an inducement award under Nasdaq rules, disclosed by press release), there are no options, warrants, agreements, contracts or other rights in existence to purchase or acquire from the Company any shares of the capital stock of the Company.  The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements (“Company Stock Plans”), and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Prospectus accurately and fairly presents in all material respects the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.

  

(xvi)Internal Accounting Controls.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintain internal accounting controls designed to provide reasonable assurances regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, including, but not limited to, internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of the Company’s financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States and to maintain accountability for its assets, (iii) access to the Company’s assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, (iv) the recorded accountability for the Company’s assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences, and (v) the interactive data in XBRL included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly present the information called for in all material respects and are prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as of the date of the most recent balance sheet of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries audited by BDO USA, LLP, there were no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal controls.

 

(xvii)Disclosure Controls.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act) designed to ensure that the information required to be disclosed by the Company and its subsidiaries in the reports they file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management of the Company and its subsidiaries, including their respective principal executive officers and principal financial officers, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure to be made, and such disclosure controls and procedures are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established.

 

(xviii) Critical Accounting Policies. The section entitled “Critical Accounting Policies” incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus accurately describes in all material respects (i) the accounting policies that the Company believes are the most important in the portrayal of the Company’s financial condition and results of operations and that require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments (“Critical Accounting Policies”); (ii) the judgments and uncertainties affecting the

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application of Critical Accounting Policies; and (iii) the likelihood that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions, and an explanation thereof.

 

(xix)Incorporated Documents.  The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when they became effective or were filed with the Commission, as the case may be, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and were filed on a timely basis with the Commission and none of such documents contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when such documents are filed with the Commission, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act, and will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

  

(xx)Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance.  There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith that are applicable to the Company or its directors or officers in their capacities as directors or officers of the Company.

 

(xxi)Exceptions.  Except as would not, in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has (i) sustained any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree, (ii) issued or granted any securities (other than pursuant to employee benefit plans, qualified stock option plans or other equity compensation plans or arrangements existing on the date hereof and disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus), (iii) incurred any material liability or obligation, direct or contingent, other than liabilities and obligations that were incurred in the ordinary course of business, (iv) entered into any material transaction not in the ordinary course of business, or (v) declared or paid any dividend on its share capital; and since such date, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there has not been any change in the share capital, long-term debt, net current assets or short-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any adverse change, or any development involving a prospective adverse change, in or affecting the condition (financial or otherwise), results of operations, shareholders’ equity, properties, management, business or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole.

 

(xxii)Anti-Bribery and Anti-Money Laundering Laws.  Each of the Company, its subsidiaries, its controlled affiliates and any of their respective officers, directors, supervisors, managers, or employees, or to the Company’s knowledge, any agents acting on behalf of the Company, has not violated, its participation in the offering will not violate, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries will institute and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure continued compliance with, each of the following laws to the extent

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applicable to the Company and its subsidiaries:  anti-bribery laws, including but not limited to, any applicable law, rule, or regulation of any locality, including but not limited to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, or any other applicable anti-corruption or anti-bribery law, rule or regulation, or anti-money laundering laws, including but not limited to, applicable federal, state, international, foreign or other laws, regulations or government guidance regarding anti-money laundering, including, without limitation, Title 18 US. Code section 1956 and 1957, the Patriot Act, and the Bank Secrecy Act.

 

(xxiii)OFAC Compliance.

a.Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor any or their directors, officers or employees, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate or representative of the Company or its subsidiaries, is an individual or entity that is, or is owned or controlled by an individual or entity that is:

(1)the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor

(2)located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of a trade embargo maintained by the U.S. Government (including, without limitation, the Crimea region of Ukraine, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria).

b.Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries will, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds from the sale of Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other individual or entity:

(1) to fund or facilitate any unauthorized activities or business of or with any individual or entity or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or

(2) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any individual or entity (including any individual or entity participating in the sale of Shares).

c. For the past five years, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has knowingly engaged in, and is not now knowingly engaged in, any unauthorized dealings or transactions with any individual or entity, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

 

(xxiv)Valid Title.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property and good and marketable title to all personal property owned by them, that are material to the business of the Company, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects, except such liens, encumbrances and defects as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries.  All assets held under lease by the Company and its subsidiaries, that are material to the business of the Company, are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases, with such exceptions as do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such assets by the Company and its subsidiaries.

 

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(xxv)Intellectual Property.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Company and its subsidiaries own or has obtained valid and enforceable licenses for, or otherwise has the right to use, all (i) patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, Internet domain name registrations, copyrights, copyright registrations, licenses, trade secret rights (Intellectual Property Rights) and (ii) inventions, software, works of authorships, trademarks, service marks, trade names, databases, formulae, know how, Internet domain names and other intellectual property (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary confidential information, systems, or procedures) (collectively, Intellectual Property Assets) necessary to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted, and as proposed to be conducted and described in the Prospectus. The Company and its subsidiaries have not received any opinion from their legal counsel concluding that any activities of their respective businesses infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate, valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person, and have not received written notice of any challenge, which is still pending, by any other person to the rights of the Company and its subsidiaries with respect to any Intellectual Property Rights or Intellectual Property Assets owned or used by the Company or its subsidiaries. To the knowledge of the Company, the Company and its subsidiaries respective businesses as now conducted do not give rise to any material infringement of, any material misappropriation of, or other material violation of, any valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person. All licenses for the use of the Intellectual Property Rights described in the Prospectus are valid, binding upon, and enforceable by or against the parties thereto in accordance to its terms. The Company has complied in all material respects with, and is not in breach nor has received any asserted or threatened claim of material breach of any Intellectual Property license, and the Company has no knowledge of any material breach or anticipated material breach by any other person to any Intellectual Property license to which the Company is a party. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, no claim has been made against the Company alleging the infringement by the Company of any patent, trademark, service mark, trade name, copyright, trade secret, license in or other intellectual property right or franchise right of any person. The Company has taken all reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard its Intellectual Property Rights, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements. The consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement will not result in the loss or impairment of or payment of any additional amounts with respect to, nor require the consent of any other person in respect of, the Companys right to own, use, or hold for use any of the Intellectual Property Rights as owned, used or held for use in the conduct of the business as currently conducted.

 

(xxvi) Permits.  The Company and its subsidiaries possess such valid and current certificates, authorizations or permits required by state, federal or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted and as described the Prospectus (Permits), except where the failure to so possess would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of, or in default under, any of the Permits or has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of, or non-compliance with, any such certificate, authorization or permit, except where such violation or default would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Permits which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would reasonably be

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expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.  The Company has not received any notice denying, revoking or modifying any approved enterprise or benefited enterprise or preferred enterprise status with respect to any of the Companys facilities or operations.

 

(xxvii)    Compliance with Applicable Laws and Regulations.  Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, the Company and its subsidiaries (i) are and at all times have been in material compliance with all statutes, rules and regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, advertising, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company including, without limitation the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §301 et seq.), the federal Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. §1320a-7b(b)), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010, the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws, and any successor government programs and comparable state laws, regulations relating to Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices and all other local, state, federal, national, supranational and foreign laws and administrative guidance relating to the regulation of the Company (collectively, the Applicable Laws); (ii) have not received any notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, exemptions, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits, registrations and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (Authorizations); (iii) possess all material Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and are not in violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (iv) have not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation arbitration or other action from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations nor is any such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action threatened; (v) have not received any written notice that any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority has taken, is taking or intends to take, action to limit, suspend, materially modify or revoke any Authorizations nor is any such limitation, suspension, modification or revocation threatened; (vi) have filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and accurate on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission);  and (vii) are not a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority.

 

(xxviii)  Clinical Trials.  The clinical and pre-clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of or sponsored by the Company, or, to the Company’s knowledge, in which the Company has participated, that are described in the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, and are intended to be submitted to Regulatory Authorities as a basis for product approval, were and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research procedures and all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the United

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States Food and Drug Administration and comparable drug regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which it is subject (collectively, the Regulatory Authorities), including, without limitation, 21 C.F.R. Parts 50, 54, 56, 58, and 312; the descriptions in the Registration Statement, or the Prospectus of the results of such studies and trials are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such trials; the Company has no knowledge of any other trials the results of which are inconsistent in any material respect with or otherwise call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus; the Company and its subsidiaries have each operated and are currently in compliance with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities; neither the Company, nor any of its subsidiaries, has received any written notices, correspondence or other written communication from the Regulatory Authorities or any governmental authority which could lead to the termination or suspension of any clinical or pre-clinical trials that are described in the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Prospectus, and there are no reasonable grounds for same.

 

(xxix) Absence of Settlement Agreements or Undertakings.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company is not a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental authority.

 

(xxx)  Absence of Legal or Governmental Proceedings.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no legal or governmental proceedings pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is the subject that, if determined adversely to the Company, would, in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect or would, in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the performance of this Agreement or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby; and to the Company’s knowledge, no such proceedings are threatened or contemplated by governmental authorities or others.

 

(xxxi)   Material Contracts.  There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Registration Statement or filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not described and filed as required.  The statements made in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, insofar as they purport to constitute summaries of the terms of the contracts and other documents described and filed, constitute accurate summaries of the terms of such contracts and documents in all material respects. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has knowledge that any other party to any such contract or other document has any intention not to render full performance as contemplated by the terms thereof.

 

(xxxii)     Insurance.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintain insurance from nationally recognized, in the applicable country, insurers in such amounts and covering such risks as is commercially reasonable in accordance with customary practices for companies engaged in similar businesses and similar industries for the conduct of their respective businesses and the value of their respective properties and as is customary for companies engaged in similar businesses in similar industries.  All policies of insurance of the Company and its subsidiaries are in full force and effect; the Company and each of its subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms of such policies in all material respects; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received notice from any insurer or agent

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of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance; there are no material claims by the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any such policy or instrument as to which any insurance company is denying liability or defending under a reservation of rights clause; and neither the Company nor any such subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(xxxiii)  Related Party Disclosure. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, shareholders, customers or suppliers of the Company, on the other hand, that is required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus which is not so described.

 

(xxxiv)   No Labor Dispute.  No labor disturbance by or dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(xxxv)  No Default.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries (i) is in violation of its articles of association, charter or by-laws (or similar organizational documents), (ii) is in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant, condition or other obligation contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, license or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it is bound or to which any of its properties or assets is subject, or (iii) is in violation of any statute or any order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over it or its property or assets or has failed to obtain any license, permit, certificate, franchise or other governmental authorization or permit necessary to the ownership of its property or to the conduct of its business, except in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii), to the extent any such conflict, breach, violation or default would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(xxxvi) Environmental Laws.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and each of its subsidiaries (i) are, and at all times prior hereto were, in compliance in all material respects with all laws, regulations, ordinances, rules, orders, judgments, decrees, permits or other legal requirements of any governmental authority, including without limitation any international, foreign, national, state, provincial, regional, or local authority, relating to pollution, the protection of human health or safety, the environment, or natural resources, or to use, handling, storage, manufacturing, transportation, treatment, discharge, disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (Environmental Laws) applicable to such entity, which compliance in all material respects includes, without limitation, obtaining, maintaining and complying with all permits and authorizations and approvals required by Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses, and (ii) have not received notice or otherwise have knowledge of any actual or alleged violation of Environmental Laws, or of any actual or potential liability for or other obligation concerning the presence, disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants.  Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (x) there are no proceedings that are pending, or to the Company’s knowledge,

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threatened, against the Company or any of its subsidiaries under Environmental Laws in which a governmental authority is also a party, other than such proceedings regarding which it is reasonably believed no monetary sanctions of $100,000 or more will be imposed, (y) the Company and its subsidiaries are not aware of any issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws, including any pending or proposed Environmental Laws, or liabilities or other obligations under Environmental Laws or concerning hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, that could reasonably be expected to have a material effect on the capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position of the Company and its subsidiaries, and (z) none of the Company and its subsidiaries anticipates material capital expenditures relating to Environmental Laws.

 

(xxxvii)Taxes.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns required to be filed through the date hereof, subject to permitted extensions, and have paid all taxes due, and no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, nor does the Company have any knowledge of any tax deficiencies that have been, or would reasonably be expected to be asserted against the Company, that would, in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(xxxviii)   ERISA Compliance.  (i) Each “employee benefit plan” (within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA)) for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any organization which is a member of a controlled group of corporations within the meaning of Section 414 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code)) would have any liability (each a Plan) has been maintained in compliance in all material respects with its terms and with the requirements of all applicable statutes, rules and regulations including ERISA and the Code; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (iii) with respect to each Plan subject to Title IV of ERISA (A) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur that would result in a material loss to the Company, (B) no “accumulated funding deficiency” (within the meaning of Section 302 of ERISA or Section 412 of the Code), whether or not waived, has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur, (C) the fair market value of the assets under each Plan that is required to be funded exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan), and (D) neither the Company or any member of its Controlled Group has incurred, or reasonably expects to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to the Plan or premiums to the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan”, within the meaning of Section 4001(c)(3) of ERISA); and (iv) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified and nothing has occurred, to the Company’s knowledge, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.

 

(xxxix)   Accuracy of Statistical and Market Data.  The statistical and market-related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and the consolidated financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable in all material respects.

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(xl)Cybersecurity. The Company and its  subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are (a) in all material respects adequate for, and operate and perform as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company as currently conducted, and (b) to the knowledge of the Company, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable physical, technical and administrative controls, and safeguards designed to maintain and protect the integrity and security of all IT Systems and all “Personal Data” (defined below) and all confidential information and data material to their businesses (“Confidential Data”).  “Personal Data” means the following information in the possession or control of the Company and its subsidiaries (i) a natural person’s name, street address, telephone number, e-mail address, photograph, social security number or tax identification number, driver’s license number, passport number, credit card number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) any information which would qualify as “personally identifying information” under the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended, if applicable; (iii) “personal data” as defined by GDPR, if applicable; (iv) any information which would qualify as “protected health information” under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (collectively, “HIPAA”); (v) any “personal information” as defined by the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), if applicable; and (vi) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural person or permits the collection or analysis of any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation. To the knowledge of the Company, there have been no breaches of the security of, or unauthorized uses of or accesses to, IT Systems or Personal Data, except for those that would not, in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems, Confidential Data, and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems, Confidential Data, and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification.

 

(xli)Compliance with Data Privacy Laws. The Company certifies that neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries  has received notice alleging any actual or potential violation of any applicable state and federal data privacy and security laws and regulations, including without limitation, to the extent applicable, HIPAA, CCPA, and the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) (collectively, the “Privacy Laws”).  The Company has at all times made all disclosures to users or customers required by Privacy Laws, and none of such disclosures made have been inaccurate or in violation of any Privacy Laws in any material respect. The Company further certifies that neither it nor any of its subsidiaries (i) has received written notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws; (ii) is currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation, or other corrective action required under any Privacy Law in connection with a violation thereof; and (iii) is a party to any order or decree of any court, regulator or other government authority that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.

 

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(xlii)Not an Investment Company.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is, and as of the applicable Settlement Date and, after giving effect to the offer and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds therefrom as described under Use of Proceeds in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, none of them will be, (i) an investment company or a company controlled by an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the Investment Company Act), and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder, or (ii) a business development company (as defined in Section 2(a)(48) of the Investment Company Act).

 

(xliii)   Accuracy of Certain Summaries and Statements.  The statements set forth or incorporated by reference, as applicable, in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the captions “Description of Capital Stock,” and in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 under the caption “Legal Proceedings,” insofar as they purport to summarize the provisions of the laws and documents referred to therein, are accurate summaries in all material respects.

 

(xliv) Registration Rights.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no contracts, agreements or understandings between the Company and any person granting such person the right to require the Company to file a registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to any securities of the Company owned or to be owned by such person.  There are no contracts, agreements or understandings to require the Company to include any such securities in the securities proposed to be offered pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(xlv)No Other Brokers.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against any of them or the Agents for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

 

(xlvi)No Integration.  The Company has not sold or issued any securities that would be integrated with the offering of the Shares contemplated by this Agreement pursuant to the Securities Act or the interpretations thereof by the Commission.

 

(xlvii)Absence of Stabilization or Manipulation.  The Company and its affiliates have not taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that has constituted or that could reasonably be expected to cause or result in the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company in connection with the offering of the Shares.

 

(xlviii)Exchange Act Registration and Listing of the Common Stock.  The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is included or approved for listing on the Exchange, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Exchange nor has the Company received any written notification that the Commission or Exchange is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. The Company has complied in all material respects with the applicable requirements of Nasdaq for maintenance of inclusion of the Common Stock thereon. The Shares, when issued, will be listed on Exchange. Except as previously disclosed to counsel for the Agents or as set forth in the Prospectus, to the knowledge of the Company, no beneficial

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owners of the Company’s capital stock or subordinated debt who, together with their associated persons and affiliates, hold in the aggregate 10% or more of such capital stock or subordinated debt, have any direct or indirect association or affiliate with a FINRA member.

 

(xlix)Offering Material.  The Company has not distributed and prior to any Settlement Date, will not distribute any offering material in connection with any Placement (as defined in Section 2(a)(i) below), other than the Prospectus, and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus to which the Agents have consented.  

 

(l)  Compliance with Labor Laws. Neither the Company nor any subsidiary is in violation of or has received notice of any violation with respect to any federal or state law relating to discrimination in the hiring, promotion or pay of employees, nor any applicable federal or state wage and hour laws, nor any state law precluding the denial of credit due to the neighborhood in which a property is situated, the violation of any of which could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(li)Not a Passive Foreign Investment Company. Subject to the qualifications and assumptions set forth in the Registration Statement, the Company is not, and upon the sale of the Shares contemplated by this Agreement does not expect to become, a “passive foreign investment company” (as defined in Section 1297 of the Code, and the regulations promulgated thereunder).

 

(lii)No Taxes or Fees Due Upon Issuance. No stamp, issue, registration, documentary, transfer or other similar taxes and duties, including interest and penalties, are payable on or in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares by the Company or the execution and delivery of this Agreement.

 

(liii)No Immunity.  Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor any of their respective properties or assets, has any immunity from the jurisdiction of any court or from any legal process (whether through service or notice, attachment to prior judgment, attachment in aid of execution or otherwise) under the laws of any jurisdiction in which it is organized, headquartered or doing business.

 

(liv)     No Legal, Accounting or Tax Advice.  The Company has not relied upon the Agents or legal counsel for the Agents for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

 

(lv)Certificate as Representation and Warranty.  Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Agents or the Agents’ counsel in connection with the offering of the Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to Agents as to the matters covered thereby.

 

(lvi)Forward-looking Statements.  No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

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2.Purchase, Sale and Delivery of Shares.

 

(a)At-the-Market Sales. On the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements herein contained, but subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, the Company agrees to issue and sell through the Agents as sales agents, and the Agents agree to use their commercially reasonable efforts to sell for and on behalf of the Company, the Shares on the following terms and conditions; provided, however, that any obligation of the Agents to use such commercially reasonable efforts shall be subject to the continuing accuracy of the representations and warranties of the Company herein, the performance by the Company of its covenants and obligations hereunder and the continuing satisfaction of the additional conditions specified in Section 4 of this Agreement. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agents will be successful in selling Shares, and (ii) the Agents will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by either Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Shares as required under this Section 2. 

 

(i)Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify either Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined below) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the relevant Agent set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by the relevant Agent unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 2(a)(iii) of this Agreement, such Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Shares have been sold, (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 2(a)(iii) below, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 7. The amount of any commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the relevant Agent in connection with the sale of the Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Section 2(a)(vi) below. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agents will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to an Agent and such Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of the Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control. For the purposes hereof, Trading Day means any day on which the  Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

 

(ii)The Shares are to be sold by an Agent on a daily basis or otherwise as shall be agreed to by the Company and the Agents on any day that is a trading day for the

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Exchange (other than a day on which the Exchange is scheduled to close prior to its regular weekday closing time). The gross sales price of the Shares sold under this Section 2(a) shall be the market price for the Common Stock sold by the Agents under this Section 2(a) at the time of such sale.

 

(iii)Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company may instruct the Agents by telephone (confirmed promptly by email) not to sell the Shares if such sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by the Company in any such instruction. Furthermore, the Company shall not authorize the issuance and sale of, and the Agents shall not be obligated to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell, any Share at a price lower than the minimum price therefor designated from time to time by the Company’s Board of Directors and notified to the Agents in writing. In addition, the Company or either Agent may, upon notice to the other party hereto by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), suspend the offering of the Shares, whereupon such Agent shall so suspend the offering of Shares until further notice is provided to the other party to the contrary; providedhowever, that such suspension or termination shall not affect or impair the parties’ respective obligations with respect to the Shares sold hereunder prior to the giving of such notice. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and each Agent agree that (i) no sale of Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares, and (iii) neither Agent shall be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Shares.

 

(iv) Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, the Agents may sell the Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the Exchange. Subject to the terms of any Placement Notice, the Agents may also sell Shares in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or any other method permitted by law, subject to the prior written consent of the Company.  

 

(v)With respect to the offering and sale of Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the Company agrees that any offer to sell Shares, any solicitation of an offer to buy Shares, and any sales of Shares shall only be effected by or through a single Agent on any single given day, and the Company shall in no event request that more than one Agent offer or sell Shares pursuant to this Agreement on the same day.

 

(vi)The compensation to an Agent for sales of the Shares, as an agent of the Company, shall be up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the Shares sold by such Agent pursuant to this Section 2(a), payable in cash (the “Commission”). The remaining proceeds, after further deduction for any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales, and reimbursement of expenses that the Agents may be entitled to pursuant to Section 3(g), shall constitute the net proceeds to the Company for such Shares (the “Net Proceeds”).

 

(vii)Each Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2), no later than the opening of the Trading Day immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Shares hereunder, setting forth the number of Shares sold

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on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds payable to the Company. 

 

(viii) All Shares sold pursuant to this Section 2(a) will be delivered by the Company to the relevant Agent for the account of such Agent, against payment of the Net Proceeds therefor, by wire transfer of same-day funds payable to the order of the Company at the offices of (i) Piper Sandler & Co., U.S. Bancorp Center, 800 Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, Minnesota, (ii) Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., 499 Park Avenue New York, New York 10022, (iii) or such other location as may be mutually acceptable, at 9:00 a.m. Central Time on the second full business day following the date on which such Shares are sold, or at such other time and date as such Agent and the Company determine pursuant to Rule 15c6-1(a) under the Exchange Act, each such time and date of delivery being herein referred to as a “Settlement Date.” If an Agent so elects, delivery of the Shares may be made by credit through full fast transfer to an account or accounts at The Depository Trust Company designated by such Agent. On each Settlement Date, such Agent will deliver the Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, such Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to timely deliver duly authorized Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 5 hereto, it will (i) hold the relevant Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company, (iii) reimburse such Agent for any losses incurred by the Agent attributable, directly or indirectly, to such default and (iii) pay to such Agent any commission or other compensation to which such Agent would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

(ix)Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, no sale may be made in a privately negotiated transaction without the prior consent of the Company and the Company and Agents represent that a vast majority of the sales pursuant to this Agreement will be made to the public and not in privately negotiated transactions.

 

(b)Maximum Amount.  Under no circumstances shall the aggregate number or aggregate value of the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement exceed: (i) the aggregate number and aggregate dollar amount of shares of Common Stock available for issuance under the currently effective Registration Statement, (ii) the aggregate number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock that are available for issuance under the Company’s certificate of incorporation, (iii) the aggregate dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under the Company’s effective Registration Statement (including any limit set forth in General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (iv) the aggregate number of aggregate dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed any Prospectus Supplement in connection with the Shares (the lesser of (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) (the Maximum Amount”)).  

 

(c) No Association or Partnership.  Nothing herein contained shall constitute the Agents an unincorporated association or partner with the Company.  

 

(d)  Duration.  Under no circumstances shall any Shares be sold pursuant to this Agreement after the date which is three years after the Registration Statement is first declared effective by the Commission.

 

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(e)Market Transactions by Agents.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Agents have informed the Company that the Agents may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and this Agreement, purchase and sell Common Stock for their own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that (i) no sale for their own account shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent the Agents may engage in sales of Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agents. The Company consents to the Agents trading in the Common Stock for the account of any of their clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement.

 

3.Covenants of the Company.  The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent as follows:

 

(a)Amendments to Registration Statement and Prospectus.    After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company agrees that it will: (i) notify the Agents promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments not related to the Shares, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus related to the Shares has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement (insofar as it relates to the transactions contemplated hereby) or Prospectus or for additional information; (ii) prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agents’ request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agents’ reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the sale of the Shares by the Agents (provided, however, that the failure of the Agents to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement); (iii) not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Shares or a security convertible into the Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agents within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agents have not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that (A) the failure of the Agents to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement), (B) the Company has no obligation to provide the Agents any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Agents an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name the Agents or does not relate to a Placement or other transaction contemplated hereunder, and (C) the only remedy that the Agents shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to provide the Agents with such copy or the filing of such amendment or supplement despite the Agents’ objection shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement); (iv) furnish to the Agents at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act.

 

(b)Stop Order. The Company will advise the Agents, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any

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stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose, and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

 

(c)Continuing Amendments. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act with respect to any Placement or pending sale of the Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agents to suspend the offering of Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance.

 

(d)Qualification of the Shares. The Company shall take or cause to be taken all necessary action to qualify the Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as the Agents reasonably designate and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares, except that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or to execute a general consent to service of process in any state. The Company shall promptly advise the Agents of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offer or sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose.

 

(e)Copies of Registration Statement and Prospectus. If requested, the Company will furnish to the Agents and counsel for the Agents copies of the Registration Statement (which will include complete manually signed copies of the Registration Statement and all consents and exhibits filed therewith), the Prospectus and all amendments and supplements to such documents, in each case as soon as available and in such quantities as the Agents may from time to time reasonably request.

 

(f)Section 11(a). The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable an earnings statement (which need not be audited) covering a 12-month period that shall satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158 promulgated thereunder.

 

(g)Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, will pay or cause to be paid (i) all expenses (including stock or transfer taxes and stamp or similar duties allocated to the respective transferees) incurred in connection with the registration, issue, sale and delivery of the Shares, (ii) all expenses and fees (including, without limitation, fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants and counsel) in connection with the preparation, printing, filing, delivery, and shipping of the Registration Statement (including the financial statements therein and all amendments, schedules, and exhibits

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thereto), the Shares, the Prospectus and any amendment thereof or supplement thereto, and the producing, word-processing, printing, delivery, and shipping of this Agreement and other underwriting documents or closing documents, including Blue Sky Memoranda (covering the states and other applicable jurisdictions) and including the cost to furnish copies of each thereof to the Agents, (iii) all filing fees, (iv) all fees and disbursements of the Agents’ counsel incurred in connection with the qualification of the Shares for offering and sale by the Agents or by dealers under the securities or blue sky laws of the states and other jurisdictions which Agents shall designate, (v) the fees and expenses of any transfer agent or registrar, (vi) the filing fees and fees and disbursements of Agents’ counsel incident to any required review and approval by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Shares, (vii) listing fees, if any, (viii) the cost and expenses of the Company relating to investor presentations or any “roadshow” undertaken in connection with marketing of the Shares, and (ix) all other costs and expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder that are not otherwise specifically provided for herein. Upon execution of this Agreement, the Company shall reimburse the Agents for the out of pocket reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agents’ counsel actually incurred to date in an amount not to exceed $100,000 (inclusive of any fees and disbursements incurred pursuant to (iv) and (vi) above).

 

(h)Use of Proceeds.  The Company will apply the net proceeds from the sale of the Shares in the manner the Prospectus.

 

(i)Restrictions on Future Sales. During the time in which a Placement Notice is pending, the Company will not, offer for sale, sell, contract to sell, pledge, grant any option for the sale of, enter into any transaction which is designed to, or might reasonably be expected to, result in the disposition of Common Stock (whether by actual disposition or effective economic disposition due to cash settlement or otherwise) by the Company or any affiliate, or otherwise issue or dispose of, directly or indirectly (or publicly disclose the intention to make any such offer, sale, pledge, grant, issuance or other disposition), any Common Stock or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for, or any options or rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock, or permit the registration under the Securities Act of any Common Stock, such securities, options or rights, except for: (i) the registration of the Shares and the sales through the Agent pursuant to this Agreement, (ii) sales of shares through any dividend reinvestment and stock purchase plan of the Company, (iii) sales of shares of restricted stock, restricted stock units and options granted pursuant to employee benefit plans existing as of the date hereof, and the Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of such outstanding options or vesting of such restricted stock units, and (iv) the issuance of shares pursuant to the exercise of warrants.

 

(j)No Stabilization or Manipulation.  The Company has not taken and will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to, or which might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, or which constitutes: (i) the stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Common Stock or any other security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares, (ii) a violation of Regulation M.  The Company shall notify the Agents of any violation of Regulation M by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or any of their respective officers or directors promptly after the Company has received notice or obtained knowledge of any such violation.  The Company shall not invest in futures contracts, options on futures contracts or options on commodities, unless the Company is exempt from the registration requirements of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended (the Commodity Act), or otherwise complies with the Commodity Act. The Company will not engage in any activities bearing on the Commodity Act, unless such activities are exempt from the Commodity Act or otherwise comply with the Commodity Act.  

 

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(k)No Other Broker.  The Company will not incur any liability for any finders or brokers fee or agents commission in connection with the execution and delivery of this Agreement, or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby.

 

(l)Timely Securities Act and Exchange Act Reports.  During any prospectus delivery period, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to file on a timely basis with the Commission such periodic and special reports as required by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.

 

(m)Internal Controls.  The Company and its subsidiaries will use best efforts to maintain such controls and other procedures, including without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the applicable regulations thereunder, that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and its principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure, to ensure that material information relating to Company, including its subsidiaries, is made known to them by others within those entities.

 

(n)Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.  The Company represents and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Agents, and the Agents severally represent and agree that, unless they obtain the prior written consent of the Company, neither Agent has made and will not make any offer relating to the Shares that would constitute an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, required to be filed with the Commission.  Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Company and the Agents is hereinafter referred to as a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.”  The Company represents that it has treated or agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely Commission filing where required, legending and record keeping.

 

(o) Representation Date and Opinions of Counsel.  Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, and thereafter during the term of this Agreement, each time the Company (A) files an amendment to the Registration Statement or Prospectus (other than relating solely to the offering of securities other than the Shares), (B) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act or files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; and (C) files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial statements (other than an earnings release) under the Exchange Act, (each of the dates in (A), (B) and (C) are referred to herein as a “Representation Date”) the Company shall cause Cooley LLP, counsel for the Company, to furnish to the Agent the opinion and negative assurance letter of such counsel, dated as of such date and addressed to Agent, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent; provided however, only a negative assurance letter of such counsel shall be required for each subsequent Representation Date.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the requirement to provide counsel opinions under this Section 3(o) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which

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waiver shall continue until the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice to an Agent.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide the Agents with opinions under this Section 3(o), then before an Agent sells any Shares pursuant to Section 2(a), the Company shall cause the opinions (including the opinion pursuant to Section 3(o) if not delivered on the date of the prior Form 10-K), comfort letter, certificates and documents that would be delivered on a Representation Date to be delivered.

 

(p)Representation Date and Comfort Letter.  Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and thereafter during the term of this Agreement, on each Representation Date to which a waiver referred to in Section 3(r) does not apply, the Company shall cause BDO USA, LLP, or other independent accountants satisfactory to the Agents, to deliver to the Agents a letter, dated as of such date and addressed to the Agents, confirming that they are independent public accountants within the meaning of the Securities Act and are in compliance with the applicable requirements relating to the qualifications of accountants under Rule 2‑01 of Regulation S‑X of the Commission, and stating the conclusions and findings of said firm with respect to the financial information and other matters covered by its letter in form and substance satisfactory to the Agents of the same tenor as the first such letter received hereunder.  

 

(q)Representation Date and Representation Certificate.  Prior to the date of the First Placement Notice and thereafter during the term of this Agreement, on each Representation Date to which a waiver referred to in Section 3(r) does not apply, the Company shall furnish to the Agents a certificate (the Representation Certificate), substantially in the form of Schedule 3 and dated as of such date, addressed to the Agents and signed by the chief executive officer and by the chief financial officer of the Company.

 

(r)Waiver of Opinions, Comfort Letters and Representation Certificates. Notwithstanding the foregoing Sections 3(o), (p) and (q), the requirements to provide a counsel opinion, a comfort letter and a Representation Certificate under such sections shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agents.  If the Company subsequently determines to issue a Placement Notice following a Representation Date for which the Agents provided a waiver as described in the preceding sentence, the Company shall (i) provide the Agents with reasonable advance notice of such determination, (ii) deliver the Representation Certificate, and (iii) cause to be delivered the items set forth in Sections 3(o), (p) and (q)  in forms reasonably satisfactory to the Agent.

 

(s) Disclosure of Shares Sold.  The Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K the number of the Shares sold through the Agents under this Agreement, the net proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter.

 

(t)Continued Listing of Shares. The Company shall use its commercially reasonable efforts to maintain the listing of the Common Stock on the Exchange.

 

(u)Notice of Changes. At any time during the term of this Agreement, as supplemented from time to time, the Company shall advise the Agents immediately after it shall have received notice or obtain knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect any opinion, certificate, letter and other document provided to the Agents pursuant to this Section 3.

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(v)  Maximum Amount.  The Company will not instruct the Agents to sell or otherwise attempt to sell Shares in excess of the Maximum Amount.

 

4.Conditions of Agent’s Obligations.  The obligations of the Agents hereunder are subject to (i) the accuracy, as of the date hereof, each Representation Date, each time of sale of any Shares, and each Settlement Date (in each case, as if made at such date) of and compliance with all representations, warranties and agreements of the Company contained herein, (ii) the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and (iii) the following additional conditions:

 

(a)Continuing Amendments; No Stop Order.  If filing of the Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, is required under the Securities Act, the Company shall have filed the Prospectus (or such amendment or supplement) or such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus with the Commission in the manner and within the time period so required (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) or Rule 164(b)); the Registration Statement shall be effective; no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any part thereof, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any amendment thereof, nor suspending or preventing the use of the Prospectus shall have been issued; no proceedings for the issuance of such an order shall have been initiated or threatened; and any request of the Commission for additional information (to be included in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or otherwise) shall have been complied with to the Agent’s satisfaction.

 

(b)      Absence of Certain Events. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)      No Material Misstatement or Omission.  Neither Agent shall have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or any the Prospectus, contains an untrue statement of fact which, in such Agent’s opinion, is material, or omits to state a fact which, in such Agent’s opinion, is material and is required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)No Adverse Changes.  Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, subsequent to the respective dates as of which

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information is given in the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries shall have incurred any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent, or entered into any material transactions, or declared or paid any dividends or made any distribution of any kind with respect to its capital stock; and there shall not have been any material change in the capital stock (other than a change in the number of outstanding Common Stock due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise of outstanding options or warrants), or any material change in the short‑term or long‑term debt of the Company, or any issuance of options, warrants, convertible securities or other rights to purchase the capital stock of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any development involving a prospective Material Adverse Effect (whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business), or any loss by strike, fire, flood, earthquake, accident or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, incurred by the Company or any subsidiary, the effect of which, in any such case described above, in the Agents judgment, makes it impractical or inadvisable to offer or deliver the Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.    

 

(e)No Rating Downgrade.  On or after the time of sale of any Shares (i) no downgrading shall have occurred in the rating accorded any of the Company’s securities by any “nationally recognized statistical organization,” as that term is defined by the Commission for purposes of Rule 436(g)(2) under the Securities Act, and (ii) no such organization shall have publicly announced that it has under surveillance or review, with possible negative implications, its rating of any of the Company’s securities.

 

(f)Compliance with Certain Obligations.  The Company shall have performed each of its obligations under Section 3(o) – 3(q).

 

(g) Opinion of Agents’ Counsel.  On each Representation Date to which a waiver does not apply, there shall have been furnished to the Agents the opinion and negative assurance letter of Goodwin Procter, LLP, counsel for the Agents, dated as of such Representation Date and addressed to the Agents, in a form reasonably satisfactory to the Agents, and such counsel shall have received such papers and information as they request to enable them to pass upon such matters; provided however, the opinion of Goodwin Procter, LLP shall only be required prior to the first Placement Notice, and thereafter, only a negative assurance letter of such counsel shall be required for each subsequent Representation Date.

 

(h)    Representation Certificate.  On or prior to the first Placement Notice, the Agents shall have received the Representation Certificate in form and substance satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel.

 

(i)     No Objection by FINRA. If applicable, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. shall have raised no objection to the fairness and reasonableness of the underwriting terms and arrangements.

 

(j)Timely Filing of Prospectus and Prospectus Supplement.  All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed by the Settlement Date, as the case may be, shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

(k)Additional Documents and Certificates.  The Company shall have furnished to Agents and the Agents’ counsel such additional documents, certificates and evidence as they may have reasonably requested.

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All opinions, certificates, letters and other documents described in this Section 4 will be in compliance with the provisions hereof only if they are satisfactory in form and substance to Agent and the Agent’s counsel.  The Company will furnish Agent with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Agent shall reasonably request.

 

5.Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)Company Indemnification.  The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agents, their respective affiliates, directors, officers and employees, and each person, if any, who controls either Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act (each, a “Company Indemnified Party”) from and against any losses, claims, damages or liabilities, joint or several, to which either Agent may become subject, under the Securities Act or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), insofar as such losses, claims, damages or liabilities (or actions in respect thereof) arise out of or are based upon, in whole or in part:

(i) an untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto (including any documents filed under the Exchange Act and deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Prospectus), any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, or any roadshow as defined in Rule 433(h) under the Act (a road show), or an omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, and

(ii)    any investigation or proceeding by any governmental authority, commenced or threatened (whether or not the Agents are a target of or party to such investigation or proceeding);

and will reimburse the Agents for any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by it in connection with investigating or defending against such loss, claim, damage, liability or action; provided, however, that the Company shall not be liable in any such case of (i) and (ii) to the extent that any such loss, claim, damage, liability or action arises out of or is based upon an untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in or omitted from the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, or any such amendment or supplement, in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information.

In addition to its other obligations under this Section 5(a), the Company agrees that, as an interim measure during the pendency of any claim, action, investigation, inquiry or other proceeding arising out of or based upon any statement or omission, or any alleged statement or omission, described in this Section 5(a), it will reimburse the Agents on a monthly basis for all reasonable and documented legal fees or other expenses incurred in connection with investigating or defending any such claim, action, investigation, inquiry or other proceeding, notwithstanding the absence of a judicial determination as to the propriety and enforceability of the Company’s obligation to reimburse the Agents for such expenses and the possibility that such payments might later be held to have been improper by a court of competent jurisdiction.    

 

(b)Agents Indemnification.  The Agents, severally and not jointly, will indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its directors and each of its officers who signs the Registration Statement and each person if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act (each, a “Agent Indemnified Party”) against any losses, claims, damages or liabilities to which such Agent Indemnified Party may

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become subject, under the Securities Act or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation, if such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Agents), but only insofar as such losses, claims, damages or liabilities (or actions in respect thereof) arise out of or are based upon an untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any amendment or supplement thereto, or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus or arise out of or are based upon the omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, in each case to the extent, but only to the extent, that such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission was made in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agents specifically for use in the preparation thereof, it being understood and agreed that the only information furnished by the Agents for use in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus consists of the statements set forth in the [sixth, seventh and eighth] paragraphs under the caption Plan of Distribution in the Prospectus (the Agent Information), and will reimburse such Agent Indemnified Party for any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by the such Agent Indemnified Party in connection with investigating or defending against any such loss, claim, damage, liability or action (whether or not such Agent Indemnified Party is a party thereto), whether threatened or commenced, based upon any such untrue statement or omission or any alleged untrue statement or omission as such expenses are incurred.

 

(b)Notice and Procedures.  Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under subsection (a) or (b) above of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party shall, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against the indemnifying party under such subsection, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof; but the omission so to notify the indemnifying party shall not relieve the indemnifying party from any liability that it may have to any indemnified party except to the extent such indemnifying party has been materially prejudiced (through the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses) by such failure.  In case any such action shall be brought against any indemnified party, and it shall notify the indemnifying party of the commencement thereof, the indemnifying party shall be entitled to participate in, and, to the extent that it shall wish, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense thereof, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to such indemnified party of the indemnifying party’s election so to assume the defense thereof, the indemnifying party shall not be liable to such indemnified party under such subsection for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by such indemnified party in connection with the defense thereof other than reasonable costs of investigation; provided, however, that if, in the sole judgment of the Agents, it is advisable for the Agents to be represented by separate counsel, the Agents shall have the right to employ a single counsel to represent the Agents, in which event the reasonable fees and expenses of such separate counsel shall be borne by the indemnifying party or parties and reimbursed to the Agents as incurred (in accordance with the provisions of the second paragraph in subsection (a) above).

The indemnifying party under this Section 5 shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the indemnifying party agrees to indemnify the indemnified party against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense by reason of such settlement or judgment.  Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for fees and expenses of counsel as contemplated by this Section 5, the indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 30 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (ii) such indemnifying party

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shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into, and (iii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed the indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.  No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of the indemnified party, effect any settlement, compromise or consent to the entry of judgment in any pending or threatened action, suit or proceeding in respect of which any indemnified party is or could have been a party and indemnity was or could have been sought hereunder by such indemnified party, unless such settlement, compromise or consent (a) includes an unconditional release of such indemnified party from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such action, suit or proceeding and (b) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

 

(d)Contribution; Limitations on Liability; Non-Exclusive Remedy.  If the indemnification provided for in this Section 5 is unavailable or insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party under subsection (a) or (b) above, then each indemnifying party shall contribute to the amount paid or payable by such indemnified party as a result of the losses, claims, damages or liabilities referred to in subsection (a) or (b) above, (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and each Agent on the other from the offering of the Shares, or (ii) if the allocation provided by clause (i) above is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) above but also the relative fault of the Company on the one hand and each Agent on the other in connection with the statements or omissions that resulted in such losses, claims, damages or liabilities, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations.  The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and each Agent on the other shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total net proceeds from the offering (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total commissions received by each Agent (before deducting expenses) from the sale of the Shares.  The relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or the omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agents, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such untrue statement or omission.  The Company and the Agents agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this subsection (d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in this subsection (d).  The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the losses, claims, damages or liabilities referred to in this subsection (d) shall be deemed to include any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending against any action or claim which is the subject of this subsection (d).  Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection (d), each Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement.  No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation.  

 

6.Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery.  All representations, warranties, and agreements of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto, including but not limited to the agreements of the Agents and the Company contained in Section 5 hereof, shall remain operative and in full force and effect regardless of any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agents or any controlling person thereof, or the Company or any of its officers, directors, or controlling persons, and shall survive delivery of, and payment for, the Shares to and by the Agents hereunder.

 

7.Termination of this Agreement.  

 

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(a)The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this entire Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares from both Agents (but not with respect to any of the individual Agents) in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that (i) with respect to any pending sale, through the Agents for the Company, the obligations of the Company, including in respect of compensation of the Agents, shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding the termination and (ii) the provisions of Section 3(g), Section 5 and Section 6 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(b)Either Agent shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement solely with respect to such agent relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 3(g), Section 5 and Section 6 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(c)Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 7, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Shares through the Agents on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, except that the provisions of Section 3(g), Section 5 and Section 6 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 7(a), (b) or (c) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 3(g), Section 5 and Section 6 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(e)Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agents or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of the Shares, such sale shall settle in accordance with the provisions of Section 2(a)(vii) of this Agreement.

 

8.Default by the Company.  If the Company shall fail at any Settlement Date to sell and deliver the number of Shares which it is obligated to sell hereunder, then this Agreement shall terminate without any liability on the part of the Agents or, except as provided in Section 3(g) hereof, any non‑defaulting party.  No action taken pursuant to this Section shall relieve the Company from liability, if any, in respect of such default, and the Company shall (A) hold the Agents harmless against any loss, claim or damage arising from or as a result of such default by the Company and (B) pay the Agents any commission to which it would otherwise be entitled absent such default.

 

9. Notices.  Except as otherwise provided herein, all communications under this Agreement shall be in writing and, if to the Agents, shall be mailed, delivered or faxed to (i) Piper Sandler & Co., U.S. Bancorp Center, 800 Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55402, Attention: General Counsel (Fax no. (612) 303-1068, Email: LegalCapMarkets@psc.com); (ii) Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., 499 Park Avenue New York, New York 10022, Attention Capital Markets, (Fax no. (212) 307-3730, Email: svasudev@cantor.com and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., 499 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10022, Attention: General Counsel (Fax no (212) 829-4708), Email: #legal-IBD@cantor.com, with a

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copy to Goodwin Procter, LLP, The New York Times Building, 620 Eighth Avenue, New York, New York 10018 Attention: Michael Maline, Esq.); (iii) if to the Company, shall be mailed, delivered or faxed to it at Aravive, Inc, River Oaks Tower, 3730 Kirby Drive, Suite 1200, Houston, Texas 77098 Attention: Chief Financial Officer with copies to Gracin & Marlow, LLP, The Chrysler Building, 405 Lexington Avenue 26th Floor, New York, NY 10174, Attention: Leslie Marlow, Esq. (Fax no. (212) 907-6457) and Cooley LLP, 55 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001, Attention: Daniel I. Goldberg, Esq. (Fax no. 212-459-6275); or in each case to such other address as the person to be notified may have requested in writing.  Any party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose.

 

10.Persons Entitled to Benefit of Agreement.  This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and their respective successors and assigns and the controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 5(e).  Nothing in this Agreement is intended or shall be construed to give to any other person, firm or corporation any legal or equitable remedy or claim under or in respect of this Agreement or any provision herein contained.  The term “successors and assigns” as herein used shall not include any purchaser, as such purchaser, of any of the Shares from the Agent.

 

11.Absence of Fiduciary Relationship.  The Company, having been advised by counsel, acknowledges and agrees that: (a) the Agents have been retained solely to act as a sales agent in connection with the sale of the Shares and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company (including any of the Company’s affiliates (including directors), equity holders, creditors, employees or agents, hereafter, Company Representatives), on the one hand, and the Agents on the other, has been created or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether the Agents have advised or is advising the Company on other matters and irrespective of the use of the defined term “Agent;” (b) neither of the Agents nor any of their respective affiliates (including directors, equity holders, creditors, employees or agents, hereafter, Agent Representatives) shall have any duty or obligation to the Company or any Company Representative except as set forth in this Agreement; (b) the price and other terms of any Placement executed pursuant to this Agreement, as well as the terms of this Agreement, are deemed acceptable to the Company and its counsel, following discussions and arms-length negotiations with the Agents; (c) the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding, and in fact has evaluated, understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of any Placement to be executed pursuant to this Agreement, and any other transactions contemplated by this Agreement; (c) the Company has been advised that the Agents and the Agent Representatives are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that the Agents and the Agent Representatives have no obligation to disclose any such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship, or otherwise; (d) the Company has been advised that the Agents are acting, in respect of any Placement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, solely for the benefit of the Agents, and not on behalf of the Company; and (e) the Company and the Company Representatives waive, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that they may have against the Agents or any of the Agent Representatives for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in respect of any Placement or any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agree that the Agents and the Agent Representatives shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to the Company or any of the Company Representatives in respect of any person asserting any claim of breach of any fiduciary duty on behalf of or in right of the Company or any of the Company Representatives.

 

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12.Governing Law and Waiver of Jury Trial.  This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.  The Company (on its own behalf and on behalf of its stockholders and affiliates) hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby.    

 

13. Submission to Jurisdiction, Etc.  Each party hereby submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the U.S. federal and New York state courts sitting in the Borough of Manhattan, City of New York, in any suit or proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby.  The parties hereby irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any lawsuit, action or other proceeding in such courts, and hereby further irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim in any such court that any such lawsuit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

 

14.  Counterparts.  This Agreement may be executed in one or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, and all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument, and may be delivered by facsimile transmission or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com).

 

15.Construction.  The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof. References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

 

 

[Signature Page Follows]

 

32

 


 

Please sign and return to the Company the enclosed duplicates of this letter whereupon this letter will become a binding agreement among the Company and the Agents in accordance with its terms.

 

Very truly yours,

ARAVIVE, INC.

By:

 

/s/ Vinay Shah

 

 

Name: Vinay Shah

 

 

Title: Chief Financial Officer

 

 

Confirmed as of the date first

above mentioned.

PIPER SANDLER & CO.

By:

 

/s/ Neil Riley

 

 

Name: Neil Riley

 

 

Title: Managing Director

CANTOR FITZGERALD & CO.

By:

 

/s/ Bala Murty

 

 

Name: Bala Murty

 

 

Title: COO, Investment Banking

 

 


[Signature page to Equity Distribution Agreement]

 

 


 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

No Facsimile and No Voicemail

 

 

From:

 

 

Aravive, Inc.

 

To:

                                      

Piper Sandler & Co.

 

Attention:  

 

Neil Riley

Neil.Riley@psc.com

 

Connor Anderson

Connor.Anderson@psc.com

 

Tom Wright

Thomas.Wright@psc.com

 

Jay Hershey

Jay.Hershey@psc.com

 

Michael Bassett

Michael.Bassett@psc.com

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

 

Attention:

 

Sameer Vasudev

svasudev@cantor.com

 

CFCEO@cantor.com

 

 

 

Date:

 

Subject:

[●], 20[●]

 

Equity Distribution Agreement – Placement Notice

 

 

Gentlemen:

 

 

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Equity Distribution Agreement among Aravive, Inc. ( Company”), and Piper Sandler & Co. and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (each an Agent”) dated September [●], 2020 (the Agreement”), the Company hereby requests that Agent sell

 


 

 

up to [] shares of the Companys common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, at a minimum market price of $[] per share.  Sales should begin on the date of this Placement Notice and shall continue until []/[all shares are sold].

 

 


 


 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

NOTICE PARTIES 

 

 

 

Aravive, Inc.

 

Gail McIntyre, Chief Executive Officer

gail@aravive.com

 

Vinay Shah, Chief Financial Officer

vinay@aravive.com

 

 

Piper Sandler & Co.

 

Michael Bassett

Michael.bassett@psc.com

 

Neil Riley

Neil.Riley@psc.com

 

Connor Anderson

Connor.Anderson@psc.com

 

Tom Wright

Thomas.Wright@psc.com

 

Jay Hershey

Jay.Hershey@psc.com

 

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

 

Sameer Vasudev

svasudev@cantor.com

 

CFCEO@cantor.com


 


 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

FORM OF REPRESENTATION CERTIFICATE

PURSUANT TO SECTION 3(q) OF THE AGREEMENT  

 

 

[●], 20[●]

 

Piper Sandler & Co.

800 Nicollet Mall

Minneapolis, MN  55402

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, New York 10022

 

 

Sir:

 

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected [●], of Aravive, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the Company”), does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 3(q) of the Equity Distribution Agreement, dated September [●], 2020 (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”), among the Company and Piper Sandler & Co. and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

 

(i)The representations and warranties of the Company in this Agreement are true and correct, in all material respects, as if made at and as of the date of the certificate, and the Company has complied with all the agreements and satisfied all the conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied at or prior to the date of the certificate;

(ii)No stop order or other order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any part thereof or any amendment thereof or the qualification of the Shares for Registration Statement, nor suspending or preventing the use of the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, has been issued, and no proceeding for that purpose has been instituted or, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, is contemplated by the Commission or any state or regulatory body;

(iii)The Shares have been duly and validly authorized by the Company and that all corporate action required to be taken for the authorization, issuance and sale of the Shares has been validly and sufficiently taken;

(iv)The signers of this certificate have carefully examined the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, and any amendments thereof or supplements thereto (including any documents filed under the Exchange Act and deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus),

(A)each part of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and any amendments thereof or supplements thereto (including any documents filed under the Exchange Act and deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Prospectus) contain, and contained when such part of the Registration Statement (or such amendment) became effective, all statements and information required

 


 

 

to be included therein, each part of the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereof, does not contain, and did not contain, when such part of the Registration Statement (or such amendment) became effective, any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state, and did not omit to state when such part of the Registration Statement (or such amendment) became effective, any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, does not include and did not include as of its date, or the time of first use within the meaning of the Securities Act, any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state and did not omit to state as of its date, or the time of first use within the meaning of the Securities Act, a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading,

(B)at no time during the period that begins on the earlier of the date of such Prospectus, or Permitted Free Writing Prospectus and the date such Prospectus, or Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was filed with the Commission and ends on the date of this certificate did such Prospectus, or Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading,

(C)since the date of the Equity Distribution Agreement, there has occurred no event required to be set forth in an amended or supplemented prospectus which has not been so set forth, and there has been no document required to be filed under the Exchange Act that upon such filing would be deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus that has not been so filed,

(D)except as stated in the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, the Company has not incurred any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent, or entered into any material transactions, not in the ordinary course of business, or declared or paid any dividends or made any distribution of any kind with respect to its capital stock, and except as disclosed in the Prospectus, and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, there has not been any change in the capital stock (other than a change in the number of outstanding Common Stock due to sales of Shares pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement and the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon the exercise of equity awards or warrants), or any material change in the short term or long term debt, or any Material Adverse Effect or any development involving a prospective Material Adverse Effect (whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business), or any loss by strike, fire, flood, earthquake, accident or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, incurred by the Company, and

(E)except as stated in the Prospectus, and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, there is not pending, or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened or contemplated, any action, suit or proceeding to which the Company is a party before or by any court or governmental agency, authority or body, or any arbitrator, which might result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 


 

 

Capitalized terms used herein without definition shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Equity Distribution Agreement.

 

ARAVIVE, INC.

By:

 

 

Name:

 

 

Title:

 

 

 

 


 

 

SCHEDULE 4

SUBSIDIARIES

Aravive Biologics, Inc. (Delaware)

 

 

arav-ex43_6.htm

Exhibit 4.3

ARAVIVE, INC.,

Issuer

AND

[TRUSTEE],

Trustee

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of ________, 20__

 

 

Debt Securities

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

PAGE

ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS

1

Section 1.01

 

Definitions of Terms

1

ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

4

Section 2.01

 

Designation and Terms of Securities

4

Section 2.02

 

Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate

6

Section 2.03

 

Denominations: Provisions for Payment

6

Section 2.04

 

Execution and Authentications

7

Section 2.05

 

Registration of Transfer and Exchange

8

Section 2.06

 

Temporary Securities

9

Section 2.07

 

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities

9

Section 2.08

 

Cancellation

9

Section 2.09

 

Benefits of Indenture

10

Section 2.10

 

Authenticating Agent

10

Section 2.11

 

Global Securities

10

Section 2.12

 

CUSIP Numbers

11

ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

11

Section 3.01

 

Redemption

11

Section 3.02

 

Notice of Redemption

11

Section 3.03

 

Payment Upon Redemption

12

Section 3.04

 

Sinking Fund

12

Section 3.05

 

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities

13

Section 3.06

 

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund

13

ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS

13

Section 4.01

 

Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest

13

Section 4.02

 

Maintenance of Office or Agency

13

Section 4.03

 

Paying Agents

14

Section 4.04

 

Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee

14

i.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

 

 

 

PAGE